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Infertility is the inability to conceive a child. A couple may be considered infertile if, after two years of regular sexual intercourse, without contraception, the woman has not become pregnant (and there is no other reason, such as breastfeeding or postpartum amenorrhoea).

PRIMARY INFERTILITY is infertility in a couple who have never had a child.
SECONDARY INFERTILITY is failure to conceive following a previous pregnancy.
Infertility may be caused by infection in the man or woman, but often there is no obvious underlying cause.

According to Badan Pusat Statistik (BPS) 2011, from 237 million indonesia citizen,about +/- 39,8 million are fertile woman, but 10-15% among of them are infertile.

Specific Female Causes

  • Ovulation problems (e.g. polycystic ovarian syndrome, PCOS)
  • Tubal Blockage
  • Pelvic Inflammatory
  • Disease Age-Related Factors
  • Uterine Problems Previous
  • Tubal Ligation
  • Endometriosis

Specific Male Causes

The main cause of male infertility is low sperm quality. In men who have the necessary reproductive organs to procreate, infertility can be caused by low sperm count due to endocrine problems, drugs, radiation, or infection. There may be testicular malformations, hormone imbalance, or blockage of the man's duct system. Although many of these can be treated through surgery or hormonal substitutions, some may be more indefinite. Infertility associated with viable, but immotile sperm may be caused by primary ciliary dyskinesia.


In the Indonesia, up to 20% of infertile couples have unexplained infertility.
In these, abnormalities are likely to be presented but not detected by current methods. The possible problems could be that:

  • The egg is not released at the optimum time for fertilization,
  • Then it may not enter the fallopian tube causing the sperm not be able to reach the egg
  • This may cause fertilization to occur and the transport of the zygote may be disturbed or implantation fails.

It is increasingly recognized that egg quality is of critical importance and women of advanced maternal age have eggs of reduced capacity for normal and successful fertilization. Also, polymorphisms in foliate pathway genes could be one reason for fertility complications in some women with unexplained infertility

ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNOLOGY (ART) is a method used to achieve pregnancy by artificial or partially artificial means. It is a reproductive technology used primarily for infertility treatments, and is also known as fertility treatment.
Several methods that are considered as ART are:

  • In Vitro Fertilization (IVF)
  • Intra-Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI)
  • Cryopreservation
  • Intra-Uterine Insemination (IUI)

In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) is a process by which an egg is fertilized by sperm outside the body. IVF is a major treatment for infertility when other methods of assisted reproductive technology have failed. The process involves monitoring and stimulating a woman's ovulatory process, removing ovum or ova (egg or eggs) from the woman's ovaries and letting sperm fertilise them in a fluid medium in a laboratory. The fertilised egg (zygote) is cultured for 2–6 days in a growth medium and is then transferred to the mother's uterus with the intention of establishing a successful pregnancy.

An IVF cycle typically includes the following steps or procedures:

  1. Controlled Ovarian Stimulation: use of medications to grow multiple eggs monitor ovarian and uterine responses
  2. Procurement Of Sperm Sample 
  3. Retrieval of Eggs from the Ovary or Ovaries 
  4. Fertilization of Eggs: insemination or injection of sperm into the egg culturing of any resulting fertilized eggs (embryos) placement (transfer) of one or more embryo(s) into the uterus support of the uterine lining with hormones to facilitate and sustain pregnancy

In some cases, additional procedures are employed. These include:

  • Intra-Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) to increase the chance for fertilization
  • Assisted Hatching Of Embryos to potentially increase the chance of embryo attachment (implantation) 
  • Embryo Cryopreservation (freezing)

Risks of IVF includes of:

  • Side effect of different medications used for IVF, the most serious of which is ovarian hyper-stimulation syndrome 
  • Risks associated with oocyte retrieval such as infection, bleeding and trauma
  • Risks associated with pregnancy resulting from IVF 
  • Risks to the child/children conceived as a result of IVF

For more INFORMATION, please contact: TERATAI FERTILITY CLINIC Ext. 28433
(Monday – Saturday: 08.00 – 16.00)